Wednesday, March 21, 2007

Political party
Is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. Parties often espouse a certain ideology, but may also represent a coalition among disparate interests. In parliamentary systems of government, most political parties have an elected leader who, if his or her party is elected by absolute majority, or with a relative majority within the coalition where tradition is thus, becomes head of government. In presidential systems, the President may be elected as a representative of his party; however, in many nations he is forced to relinquish his connections with his party upon the assumption of office as head of state.
In certain electoral situations a coalition government may be formed from members of more than one party. This is more common after elections using proportional representation rather than a "first past the post" system. Partisanship is the tendency of supporters of political parties to subscribe to or at least support their party's views and policies in contrast to those of other parties. Differentiation is essential to most political parties: they must be different at least in some ways to other parties to compete in politics and win elections. Extreme partisanship is sometimes referred to as partisan warfare.

Tuesday, March 13, 2007

Ayurveda or ayurvedic medicine is a form of alternative medicine in use primarily in the Indian subcontinent. The word "Ayurveda" is a tatpurusha compound of ayus "life" and veda "knowledge", and would roughly translate as the "Science of Life". Ayurveda deals with the measures of healthy living, along with therapeutic measures that relate to physical, mental, social and spiritual harmony. Ayurveda is also one among the few traditional systems of medicine involving surgery.

Ayurveda was first described by Agnivesha, in his book Agnivesh tantra. The book was later revised by Charaka, and renamed to Charaka Samhita. Another early text of Ayurveda is the Sushruta Samhita, which in addition to the Charaka Samhita, served as the textual material in the ancient Universities of Takshashila and Nalanda. These texts are believed to have been written around the beginning of the Common Era, and is based on a holistic approach rooted in earlier Vedic culture. Its conspicuous use of the word veda, or knowledge, reveals its role in early Hinduism and explains its popularity in India. The origin of Ayurvedic medical sciences is claimed to come from a divine revelation from Lord Brahma.

Sunday, March 04, 2007

A lotion is a low- to medium-viscosity medicated or non-medicated topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin. Most lotions are oil-in-water emulsions but water-in-oil lotions are also formulated. Lotions are usually applied to external skin with a clean cloth, cotton wool or gauze.The key components of a lotion emulsion are the aqueous and oily phases, an emulgent to prevent separation of these two phases, and, if used, the drug substance or substances. A wide variety of other ingredients such as fragrances, glycerol, dyes, preservatives, vitamins, proteins and stabilizing agents are commonly added to lotions.

It is not uncommon for the same drug ingredient to be formulated into a lotion, cream and ointment. Creams are the most convenient of the three but are inappropriate for application to regions of hairy skin such as the scalp, while a lotion is less viscous and may be readily applied to these areas. Lotions also have an advantage in that they may be spread thinly compared to a cream or ointment and may economically cover a large area of skin. Non-comedogenic lotions are recommended for use on acne prone skin.