Tuesday, December 25, 2007

What is Spamdexing?

Spamdexing has numerous methods, such as repeating unrelated phrases, to control the relevancy or prominence of resources indexed by a search engine, in a manner inconsistent with the idea of the indexing system. Some consider it to be a part of search engine optimization; though there are numerous search engine optimization methods that get better the quality and appearance of the content of web sites and serve content useful to many users. Search engines use a variety of algorithms to conclude relevancy ranking. Some of these contain determining whether the search term appears in the META keywords tag, others whether the search term appears in the body text or URL of a web page. Many search engines test out for instances of spamdexing and will remove suspect pages from their indexes. In addition people working for a search-engine organization can quickly block the results-listing from entire websites that use spamdexing, perhaps alerted by user objects of false matches. The rise of spamdexing in the mid-1990s made the most important search engines of the time less useful.

Wednesday, December 19, 2007

What do you mean by Amusement Park?

Amusement park is the common word for a collection of rides and additional leisure attractions assembled for the reason of enjoyable a reasonably large group of people. An enjoyment park is more concerned than a simple city park or playground, as an amusement park is intended to cater to adults, teenagers, and small children.

An amusement park may perhaps be stable or temporary, normally periodic, like few days or weeks per year. The short-term amusement park with mobile rides etc. is known as the funfair or carnival.

Theme parks form a more directly defined type of an amusement park. They are lasting conveniences that use architecture, signage, landscaping to help express the feeling that people are in a various place or time. Time and again a theme park will have different 'lands' of the park committed to telling a particular story. Or else, an amusement park often has rides with tiny in terms of theming design elements. The major difference among a theme park and an amusement park is to in a theme park all the rides go all with the theme of the park, for instance Disney World.

Tuesday, December 11, 2007

A short on Games

A game is equipped or semi-structured activity, normally undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes also used as a learning tool. Games are commonly different from work, which is generally accepted out for payment, and from art, which is more concerned with the term of ideas. On the other hand, the distinction is not clear-cut, and a lot of games can also be considered work and/or art. Key components of games are goals, policy, challenge, and interactivity. Games usually entail mental or objective stimulation, and often both. Many games help enlarge useful skills, serve as a form of exercise, or else execute an educational, simulation or emotional role.

Wednesday, December 05, 2007

Short information about Contact lens

A contact lens (as well known as a "contact") is a corrective, cosmetic, or at times protective lens placed on the cornea of the eye.

The Contact lenses are obtainable in a number of varieties, together with hard and soft. Hard contacts are characteristically not disposable, while soft contacts often are. Few soft contacts are as well known as extended wear lenses. The most normally used contact lenses nowadays are of the soft variety, made-up in 1961 by the Czech chemist Otto Wichterle (1913–1998).

The Contact lenses (both soft and hard) are made of a range of types of polymers, the most recent containing some variant of silicone hydrogel. Formerly, hard contact lenses were made of a polymer recognized as PMMA. They have since been replaced by rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses. Numerous contact lenses are made of hydrophilic (water-absorbing) materials, in that way allowing oxygen to reach the cornea, and make the lens easier to wear. Heavily tinted contacts are tinted to adjust or to alter the color of the iris, and are used for cosmetic reasons. Some ordinary contact lenses are somewhat tinted to make them more noticeable for handling purposes.

Monday, November 19, 2007


Transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. The term is derived from the portare ("to carry") and Latin trans ("across") . Industries which have the business of providing equipment, actual transport, transport of people or goods and services used in transport of goods or people make up a huge broad and important segment of most national economies, and are collectively referred to as transport industries.

The field of transport has several aspects: loosely they can be divided into a triad of infrastructure, vehicles, and operations. Infrastructure includes the transport networks (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals, pipelines, etc.) that are used, as well as the nodes or terminals (such as airports, railway stations, bus stations and seaports). The vehicles generally traverse on the networks, such as automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, aircrafts.

Thursday, November 15, 2007


The term "fashion" generally applies to a popular mode of expression, but quite regularly applies to a personal style of expression that may or may not apply to all. Inherent in the term is the design that the mode will vary more quickly than the culture as a total. The terms "fashionable" and "unfashionable" are in use to describe whether somebody or something fits in with the recent popular mode of appearance. The term "fashion" is regularly used in a positive sense, as a synonym for glamour and style. In this sense, fashions are a type of public art, through which a culture examines its design of beauty and goodness. The term "fashion" is as well sometimes used in a negative sense, as a synonym for fads, trends, and greed.

Fashion in clothes has acceptable wearers to express feeling or unity with other people for millennia. Modern Westerners have an extensive choice presented in the selection of their clothes. What a person chooses to dress in can reflect that person's personality or likes. When people who have cultural type start to wear new or different clothes a fashion trend may start. People who like or esteem them may start to wear clothes of a similar style.

Monday, November 05, 2007


A river is a natural waterway, which moves water diagonally the land from upper to lower elevations, and is a main part of the water cycle. The water within a river is generally from rain through surface runoff and release of stored water in natural reservoirs, such as groundwater.

The beginning of a mountain river from their resource, all rivers run downhill, naturally terminating in the sea or in a lake, during a flowing together. In dry areas rivers sometimes finish by losing water to evaporation. River water may also gain access to the soil or pervious rock, where it becomes groundwater. Extreme abstraction of water for use in industry, irrigation, etc., can also source a river to dry before reaching its natural boundary.

Monday, October 22, 2007


A forest is an area with a high bulk of trees. There are several definitions of a forest, based on a variety of criteria. These plant communities face large areas of the globe and function as animal habitats, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earth's biosphere. While frequently thought of as carbon dioxide sinks, grown-up forests are approximately carbon neutral with only troubled and young forests acting as carbon sinks. However mature forests do play a main role in the global carbon cycle as stable carbon pools, and authorization of forests leads to an increase of impressive carbon dioxide levels.

Forests sometimes have many tree species within a small area or comparatively few species over large areas. Forests are frequently home to many animal and plant species, and biomass per unit area is high compared to other plants communities. Much of this biomass occurs below-ground in the origin systems and as partly decomposed plant accumulation. The woody element of a forest contains lignin, which is comparatively slow to decompose compared with other organic materials such as cellulose or carbohydrate.

Friday, October 19, 2007


Technology is a large concept that deals with a species' procedure and information of tools and crafts, and how it affects a group' capability to control and get used to its environment. In human culture, it is an importance of science and engineering, although several technical advances predate the two concepts

Technology has affected society and its environment in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped increase more advanced economies and has allowed the rise of a spare time class. Yet, many technological processes create unwanted by-product, known as pollution, and reduce natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology control the values of a society and new technology raises new moral questions. Examples include the rise of the concept of effectiveness in terms of human productivity, a term originally useful only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.

Thursday, October 11, 2007

Education System

Schooling occurs when group or a society or an individual sets up a curriculum to educate people, usually the young. Schooling can become systematic. Sometimes education systems can be used to promote doctrine or ethics as well as knowledge, and this can lead to abuse of the system.

Life-long or adult education have become extensive in many countries. However, education is still seen by many as something aimed at children, and adult education is often branded as adult learning or ultimate learning.

Adult education takes on several forms, from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning. Lending libraries provide cheap informal access to books and other self-instructional materials. Many adults have also taken advantage of the rise in computer ownership and internet access to further their casual education

Thursday, September 27, 2007


A shuttlecock is a high-drag projectile used in the game of badminton. It has an open conical shape: the cone is shaped from sixteen overlapping goose feathers surrounded into a rounded cork base. The cork is covered with thin leather.

The shuttlecock's form makes it tremendously aerodynamically steady. Regardless of initial orientation, it will turn to fly cork first, and remain in the cork-first orientation.

The name shuttlecock is commonly shortened to shuttle; a shuttlecock may also be known as a bird or birdie. The abbreviation cock is rarely used except in a funny sense, due to its vulgar connotations. The "shuttle" part of the name was most likely derived from its back-and-forth movement during the game, similar to the shuttle of a loom; the "cock" part of the name was almost certainly derived from the likeness of the feathers to a bird's crest.

Friday, September 21, 2007


Rail transport is the transport of passengers and supplies by means of wheeled vehicles particularly designed to run down railways.

A railway/railroad track consists of two parallel iron rails, usually anchored vertical to beams, termed sleepers or ties, concrete, or steel to keep a steady space apart, or gauge. The rails and perpendicular beams are generally then placed on a base made of concrete or condensed earth and gravel in a bed of ballast to stop the track from buckling as the ground settles over time below and under the weight of the vehicles passing above. The vehicles traveling on the rails are arranged in a train; a string of individual powered or unpowered vehicles connected together, displaying markers.

Tuesday, August 28, 2007


Weather most frequently results from temperature differences from one planet to another. On large scales, temperatures differences arise mainly as areas closer to Earth's equator get more energy per unit area from the Sun than do regions nearer to Earth's poles. On local scales, temperature differences can arise because different surfaces have opposed physical characteristics such as reflectivity, roughness, or moisture content.

Surface temperature differences in roll cause pressure differences. A hot surface heats the air over it and the air expands, lowering the air pressure. The resulting parallel pressure rise accelerates the air from high to low pressure, creating wind, and Earth's rotation then causes curvature of the pour via the Coriolis Effect. The strong temperature contrast among polar and tropical air gives rise to the jet flow. Most weather systems in the mid-latitudes are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow. Weather systems in the tropics are caused by different processes, such as monsoons shower systems.

Monday, July 16, 2007


Yoga is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a trail to self-knowledge and freedom. Yoga is seen as a means to mutually physiological and spiritual mastery. Outside India, Yoga has become mainly related with the practice of asanas of Hatha Yoga, although it has influenced the whole dharmic religions family and other spiritual practices throughout the world

5,000 year old carvings from the Indus Valley Civilization represent a figure that archaeologists think represents a yogi sitting in meditation posture. The sitting in a conventional cross-legged yoga pose with its hands resting on its knees. The explorer of the seal, archaeologist Sir John Marshall, named the figure Shiva Pashupati.

A seal from the Indus Valley Civilization, The first known written reference to yoga is in the Rig Veda, likely by the western scholars to be at least 3,500 years old. The Upanishads, Bhagavad-Gita, and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali also converse the concepts and teachings of yoga.

Wednesday, May 30, 2007

Coffee Preparation

The processing of coffee normally designates the agricultural and industrial processes desirable to deliver whole roasted coffee beans to the consumer. Grinding the roasted coffee beans is done at a roastery, in a grocery store, or at home. It is most frequently ground at the roastery and sold to the consumer ground and packaged, though "whole-bean" coffee that is ground at home is becoming more popular, in spite of the extra effort required. A grind is referred to by its brewing method. "Turkish" grind, the finest, is meant for mixing straight with water, while the coarsest grinds, such as coffee percolator or French press, are at the other extreme. Midway between the extremes are the most common: "drip" and "paper filter" grinds, which are used in the most common home coffee brewing machines. The "drip" machines function with near-boiling water passed in a slow stream through the ground coffee in a filter. The espresso method uses more advanced technology to force very hot water, through the ground coffee, ensuing in a stronger flavor and chemical changes with more coffee bean matter in the drink. Once brewed, it may be presented in a variety of ways: on its own, with sugar, with milk or cream, hot or cold, and so on. Roasted arabica beans are also eaten plain and covered with chocolate. See the article on coffee preparation for a complete list.
Coffee Preparation

The processing of coffee normally designates the agricultural and industrial processes desirable to deliver whole roasted coffee beans to the consumer. Grinding the roasted coffee beans is done at a roastery, in a grocery store, or at home. It is most frequently ground at the roastery and sold to the consumer ground and packaged, though "whole-bean" coffee that is ground at home is becoming more popular, in spite of the extra effort required. A grind is referred to by its brewing method. "Turkish" grind, the finest, is meant for mixing straight with water, while the coarsest grinds, such as coffee percolator or French press, are at the other extreme. Midway between the extremes are the most common: "drip" and "paper filter" grinds, which are used in the most common home coffee brewing machines. The "drip" machines function with near-boiling water passed in a slow stream through the ground coffee in a filter. The espresso method uses more advanced technology to force very hot water, through the ground coffee, ensuing in a stronger flavor and chemical changes with more coffee bean matter in the drink. Once brewed, it may be presented in a variety of ways: on its own, with sugar, with milk or cream, hot or cold, and so on. Roasted arabica beans are also eaten plain and covered with chocolate. See the article on coffee preparation for a complete list.

Monday, May 14, 2007

Submarine volcanoes:

Submarine volcanoes are general features on the ocean floor. Some are energetic and, in shallow water, disclose their presence by blasting steam and rocky fragments high above the surface of the sea. Many others lie at such great rock bottom that the tremendous weight of the water above them prevents the explosive discharge of steam and gases, although they can be detected by hydrophones and staining of water because of volcanic gases. Even large submarine eruptions may not disturb the ocean surface. Because of the rapid cooling effect of water as compared to air, and increased buoyancy, submarine volcanoes often form rather sharp pillars over their volcanic vents as compared to above-surface volcanos. In due time, they may break the ocean surface as new islands. Pillow lava is a common eruptive product of submarine volcanoes.

Wednesday, April 25, 2007

Green House Effect:

CO2 production from increased industrial activity (fossil fuel burning) and other human actions such as cement production and tropical deforestation has increased the CO2 concentrations in the ambiance. Measurements of carbon dioxide amounts from Mauna Loa observatory show that CO2 has increased from about 313 ppm (parts per million) in 1960 to about 375 ppm in 2005. The current observed amount of CO2 exceeds the geological record of CO2 maxima (~300 ppm) from ice core data (Hansen, J., Climatic Change, 68, 269, 2005 ISSN 0165-0009).

Because it is a greenhouse gas, elevated CO2 levels will increase global mean temperature; based on an extensive review of the scientific literature, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concludes that "most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations" [7].

Over the past 800,000 years [8], ice core data shows clearly that carbon dixoide has varied from values as low as 180 parts per million (ppm) to the pre-industrial level of 270ppm [9]. Certain paleoclimatologists consider variations in carbon dioxide to be a fundamental factor in controlling climate variations over this time scale.[1]

Monday, April 02, 2007

Weather forecasting
Although meteorologists now rely deeply on computer models, it is still relatively common to use techniques and conceptual models that were developed before computers were powerful enough to make predictions accurately or efficiently. Many of these methods are used to resolve how much skill a forecaster has added to the forecast. Similarly, they could also be used to determine how much skill the industry as a whole has gained with emerging technologies and techniques.

Persistence method
The persistence method assumes that conditions will not change. Often summarized as "Tomorrow equals today". This method works best over short periods of time in stagnant weather regimes.

Extrapolation method
This assumes that the systems in the atmosphere propagate at similar speeds than seen in the past at some distance into the future. This method works best over short periods of time, and works best if you take diurnal changes in the pressure and precipitation patterns into account.

Wednesday, March 21, 2007

Political party
Is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. Parties often espouse a certain ideology, but may also represent a coalition among disparate interests. In parliamentary systems of government, most political parties have an elected leader who, if his or her party is elected by absolute majority, or with a relative majority within the coalition where tradition is thus, becomes head of government. In presidential systems, the President may be elected as a representative of his party; however, in many nations he is forced to relinquish his connections with his party upon the assumption of office as head of state.
In certain electoral situations a coalition government may be formed from members of more than one party. This is more common after elections using proportional representation rather than a "first past the post" system. Partisanship is the tendency of supporters of political parties to subscribe to or at least support their party's views and policies in contrast to those of other parties. Differentiation is essential to most political parties: they must be different at least in some ways to other parties to compete in politics and win elections. Extreme partisanship is sometimes referred to as partisan warfare.

Tuesday, March 13, 2007

Ayurveda or ayurvedic medicine is a form of alternative medicine in use primarily in the Indian subcontinent. The word "Ayurveda" is a tatpurusha compound of ayus "life" and veda "knowledge", and would roughly translate as the "Science of Life". Ayurveda deals with the measures of healthy living, along with therapeutic measures that relate to physical, mental, social and spiritual harmony. Ayurveda is also one among the few traditional systems of medicine involving surgery.

Ayurveda was first described by Agnivesha, in his book Agnivesh tantra. The book was later revised by Charaka, and renamed to Charaka Samhita. Another early text of Ayurveda is the Sushruta Samhita, which in addition to the Charaka Samhita, served as the textual material in the ancient Universities of Takshashila and Nalanda. These texts are believed to have been written around the beginning of the Common Era, and is based on a holistic approach rooted in earlier Vedic culture. Its conspicuous use of the word veda, or knowledge, reveals its role in early Hinduism and explains its popularity in India. The origin of Ayurvedic medical sciences is claimed to come from a divine revelation from Lord Brahma.

Sunday, March 04, 2007

A lotion is a low- to medium-viscosity medicated or non-medicated topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin. Most lotions are oil-in-water emulsions but water-in-oil lotions are also formulated. Lotions are usually applied to external skin with a clean cloth, cotton wool or gauze.The key components of a lotion emulsion are the aqueous and oily phases, an emulgent to prevent separation of these two phases, and, if used, the drug substance or substances. A wide variety of other ingredients such as fragrances, glycerol, dyes, preservatives, vitamins, proteins and stabilizing agents are commonly added to lotions.

It is not uncommon for the same drug ingredient to be formulated into a lotion, cream and ointment. Creams are the most convenient of the three but are inappropriate for application to regions of hairy skin such as the scalp, while a lotion is less viscous and may be readily applied to these areas. Lotions also have an advantage in that they may be spread thinly compared to a cream or ointment and may economically cover a large area of skin. Non-comedogenic lotions are recommended for use on acne prone skin.

Tuesday, February 20, 2007

Identical twins
Identical twins occur when a single egg is fertilized to form one zygote which then divides into two separate embryos. This is not considered to be a hereditary trait, but rather an anomaly that occurs in birthing at a rate of about 1:150 births worldwide, regardless of ethnic background. The two embryos develop into fetuses sharing the same womb. When one egg is fertilized by one sperm cell, and then divides and separates, two identical cells will result. Depending on the stage at which the zygote divides, identical twins may share the same amnion, which can cause complications in pregnancy.

For example, the umbilical cords of monoamniotic twins can become entangled, reducing or interrupting the blood supply to the developing fetus. About 50% of mono-mono twins die from umbilical cord entanglement. Monochorionic twins, sharing one placenta, usually also share the placental blood supply. These twins may develop such that blood passes disproportionately from one twin to the other through connecting blood vessels within their shared placenta, leading to twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

Wednesday, February 14, 2007

In marginalist economic theory, the price level is determined by the marginal cost and marginal utility. The price of all goods will be the cost of making the last one that people will purchase, and the price of all the employees in a company will be the cost of hiring the last one the business needs. Marginalism looks at decisions based on "the margins", what the cost to produce the next unit is, versus how much it is expected to return in profit. When the marginal return of an action reaches zero, the action stops. Marginal utility is how much more happiness or use a person receives from a purchase in contrast with buying less. Marginal rewards are often subject to diminishing returns: Less reward is obtained from more production or consumption. For example, the 10th bar of chocolate that a person consumes does not taste as good as the first, and so brings less marginal utility.

Marginalism became increasingly important in economic theory in the late 19th century, and is a tool which is used to analyze how economic systems will react. Marginal cost of production divides costs into "fixed" costs which must be paid regardless of how many of a commodity are produced, and "variable costs". The marginal cost is the variable cost of the last unit. Marginalism states that when the profit from the next unit will be zero, that unit will not be produced. This is often termed the marginal revolution in economic thought.

Sunday, February 04, 2007

Mega tsunami
Mega tsunami often hyphenated as mega-tsunami, also known as iminami or "wave of purification" is an informal term used by popular media and popular science to describe a very large tsunami-like wave significantly beyond the size reached by tsunamis. For this reason, there is no scientific definition of a mega tsunami. Informally, the term generally refers to waves beyond the norm for tsunamis, ranging from over 40 meters to giants over 100 meters tall. Note that mega tsunamis often reach higher than their wave height when they meet land, as the water often floods upwards from the force of impact.

Mega tsunamis are related to tsunamis in name only: they do not usually have the same cause or appearance, the only connection being that both are very large scale water movements caused by point events.[citation needed] They are also not the same as freak waves which appear in ocean waters and are often up to 30 meters tall.

Tuesday, January 23, 2007

Buddhism is a religion, a realistic philosophy, and arguably a psychology, focusing on the teachings of the Buddha Sakyamuni, who lived in antique India most likely from the mid-6th to the early 5th century BCE. Buddhism extend throughout the Indian subcontinent in the five centuries following the Buddha's passing, and propagated into Central, Southeast, and East Asia over the next two millennia. Today, Buddhism is divided primarily into three traditions: Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. Buddhism continues to magnetize followers worldwide, and, with about 708 million adherents, it is considered a major world religion. Buddhism is the fourth-largest religion in the world.

When used in a generic sense, a Buddha is usually considered to be a person who discovers the true nature of reality through years of spiritual cultivation, investigation of the variety of religious practices of his time, and meditation. This transformational discovery is called bodhi - literally, "Awakening”. Any person who has become awakened from the "sleep of ignorance" by directly realizing the true nature of reality is called a Buddha.

Thursday, January 11, 2007

Animals are a main group of organisms, classified as the kingdom Animalia or Meta­zoa. In general they are multi­cellular, capable of locomotion, responsive to their environment, and feed by consuming other organisms. Their body plan becomes permanent as they develop, usually early on in their development as embryos, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on.

The word "animal" comes from the Latin word animal, of which animalia is the plural, and is derived from anima, meaning vital breath or soul. In everyday usage animal refers to any member of the animal kingdom that is not a human being, and sometimes excludes insects. The use of the word animal in law classically reflects the common pre-scientific use of the word, roughly equivalent to what modern biology would classify as nonhuman mammal. For example, wildlife laws normally use phrases such as "animals, birds and fish."

Friday, January 05, 2007

Statue of Zeus at Olympia
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia is one of the classical Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was carved by the famed Classical sculptor Phidias circa 435 BC in Olympia, Greece.

The seated statue occupied the whole width of the aisle of the temple that was built to house it, and was 40 feet tall. "It seems that if Zeus were to stand up," the geographer Strabo noted early in the 1st century BC, "he would unroof the temple." Zeus was carved from ivory then covered with gold plating and was seated on a magnificent throne of cedarwood, inlaid with ivory, gold, ebony, and precious stones. In Zeus' right hand there was a small statue of Nike, the goddess of victory, and in his left hand, a shining sceptre on which an eagle perched. Visitors like the Roman general Aemilius Paulus, the victor over Macedon, were moved to awe by the godlike majesty and splendor that Phidias had captured.

Thursday, January 04, 2007

2D computer graphics
The first advance in computer graphics was in the use of CRTs. There are two approaches to 2D computer graphics: vector and raster graphics. Vector graphics stores precise geometric data, topology and style such as: coordinate positions of points, the relations between points , and the color, thickness, and possible fill of the shapes. Most vector graphic systems can also use primitives of standard shapes such as circles, rectangles, etc.

Early vector-graphics displays were monochrome CRTs where the picture was drawn by the cathode ray being motivated about the screen along the required path.On a scanning display, a vector graphic image has to be transformed to a raster image to be viewed. Raster graphics is a uniform 2-dimensional grid of pixels. Each pixel has a specific value such as, for instance, brightness, color, transparency, or a combination of such values. A raster image has a finite resolution of a specific number of rows and columns. Standard computer displays shows a raster image of resolutions such as 1280 columnsx1024 rows of pixels. Today, one often combines raster and vector graphics in complex file formats.